Entstehung und Entwicklung transnationaler Kommunikationsräume in Europa zu Kriegszeiten, 1914–1945
Herausgegeben von Barbara Lambauer und Christian Wenkel
Barbara Lambauer / Christian Wenkel
Einleitung: Entstehung und Entwicklung transnationaler Kommunikationsräume in Europa zu Kriegszeiten, 1914–1945, S. 7
The thematic issue is devoted to the influence of war on the emergence of new transnational communication spheres and experiences during the first half of the 20th century in Europe. While the interstate and civil wars during this period stand generally for a withdrawal to national or nationalistic positions, we can simultaneously observe increasing intertwining and convergence of European experiences that strengthened transnational references and networks during times of existential insecurity and threat. The case studies presented here reveal the importance, for the study of such references and networks, of peripheral regions, detention camps, resistance and exile, the participation in collective cultural production and the construction of common infrastructure. In an exemplary manner, they offer evidence for the emergence of trans-European structures, convergences and public spheres during the first half of the 20th century that remained not without consequences for later developments. Thus, the thematic issue’s intention is to propose approaches for a broken Europeanisation narrative, in which divergence appears as constitutive – and not only restraining – element. In this way, it calls for a stronger consideration of transnational influences in the historiography of European wars during the 20th century.
Isabella von Treskow
Französische Kriegsgefangenenzeitungen im Ersten Weltkrieg:
Internationale Erfahrung, Interkulturalität und europäisches
Selbstverständnis, S. 29
German Detention camps throughout the First World War were places where prisoners of the Allied powers met and got closer together, including soldiers from Europe and outside Europe. The camps were characterized by tensions between the different groups (national, European, colonial, indigene-colonial), living under repressive conditions, though at the same time protected by the Hague Convention. The analysis of the newspapers edited by French war prisoners shows different intercultural initiatives and representations of international relationships that were bound to the experience of the camp and (forced) labor. Furthermore, they show how the newspapers became a medium favoring a certain opening to mutual appreciation. The ideas of fraternity or civilization, based on the antagonism between Europe and America, gave way to the sentiment of community in captivity. However, persisting national-discursive traditions and the high esteem of the own culture did not necessarily promote the idea of a cultural equality.
Ausländerinnen im Spanischen Bürgerkrieg: Internationales
Engagement in einem nationalen Konflikt, S. 48
Hundreds of women from all over the world supported the Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War. For decades their commitment had been almost forgotten, they were not more than a passing reference in the abundant literature about the Spanish Civil War – referred to as humanitarian helpers who came to Spain following their husbands. This contribution discusses the targets and experiences of these foreign female volunteers in a war in an alien country and analyses their role in the development of transnational relations – refuting the traditional gender role model. It will be illustrated how women – in the medical service, at the militias, in logistics and administration, as translators and reporters – fought for their political convictions risking health and life. Many of the networks formed in Spain survived the following years and due to them some Spanienkämpferinnen could be saved from death in the extermination camps of the national socialists.
The Börgermoorlied: The Journey of a Resistance Song throughout Europe, 1933–1945, S. 65
The Börgermoorlied, Moorsoldatenlied or Lied der Moorsoldaten, better known in English as The Peat Bog Soldiers or The Soldiers of the Moor, was born under the Third Reich in the camp of Börgermoor during the summer of 1933. Created by communist inmates in one of the first Nazi camps, this song represents a unique example of a European and even international musical circulation before, during, and after the Second World War. From the first Nazi camps in Germany to the death camps of Auschwitz-Birkenau, London, the International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), and French internment camps, this Song of deportation spread throughout Europe. This article traces the history and evolution of the song from its origin to nowadays. It also shows how this song was used by many artists, from the early camps to the exile, to help to build a “space of communication” and spiritual resistance against totalitarianism.
Christian Henrich-Franke / Léonard Laborie
European Union for and by Communication Networks: Continuities and Discontinuities during the Second World War, S. 82
The Second World War stopped most of the activities of the international infrastructure organisations like the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) or the Universal Postal Union (UPU), which had managed the transnational flows of communication since the mid-19th century. Nevertheless, this did not stop international postal and telecommunication cooperation completely. In 1942 the German PTT administration convened a European postal and telecommunication congress in Vienna that pursued the work done by the ITU and UPU. They founded a ‘European Postal and Telecommunication Union’ (EPTU) in accordance with the ITU and UPU conventions. This article argues that the EPTU was an important step toward the Europeanization of intra-European connections. Within EPTU ideas as well as norms, values and practices of postal and telecommunication governance in view of uniting Europe continued (nearly unbroken) from the interwar to the post Second World War era.
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