Globalizing Violence, Emerging Modernity: Piracy and Anti-Piracy Campaigns in Eurasia, 1600-1900

Globalizing Violence, Emerging Modernity: Piracy and Anti-Piracy Campaigns in Eurasia, 1600-1900

Haneda Masashi (University of Tokyo)
Gakushuin Women's College, Tokyo, Japan
From - Until
10.12.2011 - 11.12.2011
Ota, Atsushi

The sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries were the "age of piracy" all over the world. European and Asian piracy and privateering were rampant among them in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Arabian Sea, the South China Sea, the East China Sea, and Southeast Asian seas.
European pirates declined in the early eighteenth century, and North African corsairs were suppressed in the early nineteenth century. From the late eighteenth century onward, there were many incidents of Asian piracy, resulting in European anti-piracy campaigns in Asian seas. This workshop discusses the piracy incidents and the subsequent anti-piracy campaigns in the abovementioned places, arguing that they were globally connected

It seems that the surge of large-scale piracy and the state suppression of piracy around the world were phenomena at the beginning of the modern era. In many cases piracy became rampant when large-scale trade was booming, while some parties were excluded from commercial opportunities. When some people violently took part in such opportunities, states called them pirates
or privateers because of their use of force, although most of them were in fact strongly involved in trade, which boosted local and regional "shadowy economies."

When some states attempted to suppress piracy, they seem to have held new ideas about their state building. Many of them embraced an idea that they were bringing something "modern," either an embryonic nation state or the idea of "free trade." As large-scale commerce and colonies had become national objectives for some European states, the states came to conclude that they should punish piracy and privateering, which had undermined state
efforts to develop trade and colonies. Emerging nation states outlawed piracy, because a state now became the only authority to monopolize violence and decision-making. The "national objectives" soon led to imperialism. Asian piracy was condemned as an obstacle to "free trade," and Western suppression of Asian piracy justified their advancement as a part of their "civilizing mission."

In reality, however, the actual causes, practices, and results of piracy and anti-piracy campaigns were diverse in different places, and they were not at all a simple story of the victory of "modern"
states over "premodern" pirates. The relationship between state authorities (either central or local) and local elites, traders, and pirates usually involved extremely complicated interactions, conflicts, compromise, and networking. Nevertheless, from these interactions, some sorts of "modern" systems and ideas, such as modern territorial control, modern trade order, or racial/religious stereotyping of local people, took shape. This workshop aims to discuss the cases of such diverse developments, dynamisms, and
results of global piracy and anti-piracy campaigns, which resulted in the emergence of "modern" systems and ideas in Eurasia.



10 December 2011

10:00-10:40, Opening Session
Opening remark, Masashi Haneda (University of Tokyo)
About the workshop, Atsushi Ota (Academia Sinica)

10:40-12:00, Session 1 Around Europe
A precondition of the suppression of piracy in South and South
East Asia: Use of privateering and its abolition in early modern Britain, Shinsuke Satsuma (Waseda University)
Divorce or encounter? Barbary corsairs and European states at the beginning of the 19th century, Akihito Kudo (Gakushuin Women's College)

13:30-14:50, Session 2 The Arabian Sea
The British Empire in the Persian Gulf Political System, the Persian Gulf Political System in the British Empire: Reconsidering Qasimi "Pirates," Hideaki Suzuki (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science)
Whose Pirate? British reflections on state power and predation in the Indian Ocean and the long eighteenth century, Lakshmi Sabramaniyam (University of Calcutta)

15:20-17:00, Session 3 Southeast Asian Seas
Compromise and Cooperation: Piracy and Dutch Anti-Piracy Policy in West Kalimantan, c. 1780-1830, Atsushi Ota (Academia Sinica)
Anti-piracy campaigns and the transformation of the local political system in eastern Sulawesi 1800-1900, Esther Veltoen (University of Hull)
Containment, Expansion and Sovereignty: The 'Guerras Piraticas' and Malayo-Muslim Piracy in the Philippines, 1787-1878, James Francis Warren (Murdoch University)

11 December 2011

9:00- 10:20, Session 4 East Asian Seas
Suppression of Pirates in South China Sea by Naval Forces of China, Macao, and Britain, Yasufumi Toyooka (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) and Ei Murakami (Kyoto University)
A Tentative Assumption on the Relation between Piracy and Trade
centering on Early Modern Japan, Kenji Igawa (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London/Osaka University)

10:40-12:10, Session 5 General Discussion

12:10-12:20, Closing Session
- Closing remark, Masashi Haneda (University of Tokyo)

Contact (announcement)

Atsushi Ota, Ph.D.
Assistant Research Fellow

Center for Asia-Pacific Area Studies
RCHSS, Academia Sinica
128 Academia Road, Section 2
Nangang, 115 Taipei, Taiwan
Tel: +886-(0)2-2652-3359
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